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Brawl changed the idea with color changes just a bit. While Melee added a few extra outfits to some characters, Brawl promises six colors each.

However, there are exceptions. All the playable characters of the Pokémon universe (Pikachu, Jigglypuff, Pokémon Trainer and Lucario), as well as Sonic, have less than six. The other exception is that Wario has two outfits, each with multiple color choices, effectively doubling his alternate costume choices. The costumes can be cycled by clicking on the character (any controller), pressing A/B (Wii Remote), pressing 1/2 (Wii Remote w/ Nunchuck), or pressing X/Y (Classic, Gamecube).

Color Blindness

A few characters (namely, Lucario and Sonic) have sets of costume changes that can be difficult to distinguish from each other in a match. As such, tournaments have a rule stating that in a doubles match, a partly colorblind Lucario or Sonic player may request to be given the blue team. In some cases, texture hacks are used to make the color difference more obvious.

Characters

Bowser

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Bowser's alternate costumes in SSBB

Green G Based on his current design since Luigi's Mansion, Super Mario Sunshine and Mario Party 4.
Black B Resembles Morton Koopa Jr.'s modern design from the New Super Mario Bros games.
Red R Resembles a Red Koopa Troopa or a Spiny. It may also represent one of his alternate colors in Mario Golf.
Blue B Resembles Bowser's appearance on the international covers of Super Mario Bros. It may also represent the Bowser Imposter from Super Mario Bros. The Lost Levels. His shell resembles the spiny shell from Mario Kart DS, and Mario Kart Wii as well.
White W Resembles Dry Bowser from New Super Mario Bros. and Mario Kart Wii. It also resembles Morton Koopa Jr.'s white and gold shell (Super Mario World only) and darker skin.
Brown B Resembles Boom Boom's sprite from Super Mario Bros. 3.

Captain Falcon

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Captain Falcon's alternate costumes in SSBB

Indigo I Based on his appearance from F-Zero X.
Black B Resembles his costume from the F-Zero X Expansion Kit, as well as a Japanese commercial for F-Zero X.
Red R Nearly identical to his rival Blood Falcon's outfit, even the writing on his back changes to say "Blood Hawk", with a skull design around the lettering.
Green G Resembles the color scheme of the Wild Goose, Pico's F-Zero vehicle.
Blue B This is a reference to his original F-Zero appearances (his costume in the F-Zero games is more vibrant than his Super Smash Bros. outfits).
White W Resembles Jody Summers' outfit, also known as Captain Fabulous.

Diddy Kong

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Diddy Kong's alternate costumes in SSBB

Red R Based on his current appearance since Donkey Kong Country.
Yellow Y Resembles the alternate outfit in the Two-Player Contest mode in Donkey Kong Country and Donkey Kong 64.
Pink P Resembles Dixie Kong, Diddy Kong's girlfriend, who appeared in Donkey Kong Country 2: Diddy's Kong Quest and Donkey Kong Country 3: Dixie Kong's Double Trouble!.
Purple P Resembles an alternate costume worn by Diddy Kong when the second player used him in Donkey Kong Country 2.
Green G Resembles one of Diddy Kong’s alternate costumes in the multiplayer mode of Donkey Kong 64
Blue B Resembles Kiddy Kong, Dixie's partner in Donkey Kong Country 3: Dixie Kong's Double Trouble. It also resembles the alternate outfit in the Two-Player Contest mode in Donkey Kong Country 2: Diddy's Kong Quest.

Donkey Kong

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Donkey Kong's alternate costumes in SSBB

All of Donkey Kong's alternate costumes can be traced back to the multiplayer mode of Donkey Kong 64.

Brown B Based on his current appearance since Donkey Kong Country.
Black B In Donkey Kong Country, Donkey Kong wears a yellow tie for his alternate color scheme in the Two-Player Contest Mode. He also looks like a rainforest gorilla.
Red R Represents the original Donkey Kong (A.K.A. Cranky Kong) from the arcade game with the same name, who had reddish orange fur.
Blue B Resembles an alternate color scheme from Donkey Kong 64's multiplayer mode and an alternate costume from Mario Golf.
Green G Resembles an alternate color scheme from DK: King of Swing. It also gives him the color scheme of his rival, King K. Rool.
White W Resembles a yeti, a famous East Asian cryptid. Also resembles to Eddie the Mean Old Yeti from the Donkey Kong County animated series.

Falco

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Falco's alternate costumes in SSBB

White W Based off his design from Star Fox: Command.
Orange O Resembles his outfit from Melee and Star Fox 64.
Blue B Resembles Slippy Toad's outfit from Star Fox 64.
Red R Resembles Peppy Hare's outfit from Star Fox 64 and his outfit in Star Fox: Assault.
Green G Resembles Fox's outfit, as well as the multiplayer mode in Star Fox Assault.
Black B The black color matches Fox's (and by extension, Wolf's) dark costume. Also based on an artwork for the original Star Fox game where he had black feathers.

Fox

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Fox's alternate costumes in SSBB

Brown B Based off his design from Star Fox: Command.
Black B Named "Dark Fox" on the DOJO!!. Similar dark color schemes are also available for Falco and Wolf.
Red R Resembles Falco's outfit from from Star Fox 64, Star Fox: Assault, and Star Fox: Command and Peppy Hare's outfit from Star Fox 64.
Green G Resembles his outfit from Star Fox: Assault's multiplayer. Also resembles his color scheme from the original Star Fox concept art.
Blue B Resembles Slippy Toad's outfit from Star Fox 64 as well as the multiplayer mode in Star Fox Assault.
White W Resembles an outfit worn by Fox in an issue of the Nintendo Power comic strips.

Ganondorf

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Ganondorf's alternate costumes in SSBB

Grey G Based on his appearance from The Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess.
Black B Compliments the Dark Link palette swap. This may also be a reference to the original Phantom Ganon, though that could be a stretch, seeing as Phantom Ganon had a white face, and not white hair. Also referred to as "Old Manondorf" in the community due to his white hair.
Blue B Bears a slight resemblance to the monster Ganon.
Green G N/A
Red R Possibly a reference to his Wind Waker artwork
Brown B Resembles his appearance in The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time. This costume has the same colors as his Super Smash Bros. Melee design, slightly darkening his red hair, and using the same design on his cape.

Ice Climbers

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The Ice Climbers' alternate costumes in SSBB

Popo and Nana switch positions for their red, black, and white costumes, but they do not switch positions on the selection screen like they did in Melee.

Purple P Based on their appearance from the original Ice Climber.
Red R A variation based on their default look. Could possibly be meant for some kind of "holiday" look. Also makes Nana resemble the red Ice Climber on the boxart for Ice Climber. Also resembles the color changes before turning white when touching an enemy in Ice Climber.
Blue B N/A
Black B Popo's white parka could also resemble a brief color change that happens when Popo and Nana die in Ice Climber. Nana's black parka is based on the sprite for Popo in the Game & Watch version of Ice Climber.
Green G N/A
White W The only costume that renders both Ice Climbers' coats the same color, but also the only one that gives them different mitt colors. Resembles the color of any Ice Climber when touched by an enemy in Ice Climber.

Ike

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Ike's alternate costumes in SSBB

Indigo I Based on his Ranger class outfit from Fire Emblem: Path of Radiance.
Yellow Y Resembles the outfit of his father, Greil, from Fire Emblem: Path of Radiance.
Red R Resembles the outfit of Mia from Fire Emblem: Path of Radiance and Fire Emblem: Radiant Dawn. Also based on the enemy units from the Fire Emblem series.
Blue B Based on his third-tier vanguard class in Fire Emblem: Radiant Dawn. It also greatly resembles Sigurd from Fire Emblem: Seisen no Keifu.
Green G Based on the allied units from the GBA Fire Emblem games.
Brown B Based on the mages in Fire Emblem: Path of Radiance. Referred to as an "ordinary soldier" by the DOJO!!.

Jigglypuff

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Jigglypuff's alternate costumes in SSBB

Jigglypuff's alternate costumes are mostly feminine accessories, which is one of the reasons why this Jigglypuff is considered to be female.

Pink P Based off its recent appearances in the Pokemon series.
Red R The same red flower Jigglypuff had in Melee. It appears to be a hibiscus flower with five petals in a circle-like shape. It also resembles Phoebe's flower from Pokémon Ruby and Sapphire.
White W Gives Jigglypuff a hat like the one Leaf, the female heroine of Pokémon FireRed & LeafGreen wears.
Blue B Jigglypuff's shiny color. The hat resembles those worn by the Bug Catcher and Lady trainer classes from the Pokémon games.
Green G Very similar to the hat worn by Kirby when he has his Sleep ability.

King Dedede

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King Dedede's alternate costumes in SSBB

Red R Based on his recent appearances in recent Kirby titles.
Pink P Similar to an alternate costume in Kirby 64: The Crystal Shards' multiplayer mode.
Green G Similar to an alternate costume in Kirby Air Ride.
Purple P Features a very ornately decorated belt, similar to one on a formal Japanese kimono. This costume is also similar to an alternate costume in Kirby Air Ride.
Blue B Features a belt that contains the same icons as one of the menu schemes from Kirby 64.
Brown B Mirrors Kirby's white costume, resembling his monochromatic appearance in Kirby's Dream Land for the Game Boy.

Kirby

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Kirby's alternate costumes in SSBB

All these colors are also similar to different Kirby colors in games such as Kirby Air Ride and Kirby & the Amazing Mirror. They are all also usable in Kirby: Squeak Squad, where color variations are distinct and each have their own names.

Pink P Based on his appearance from recent Kirby games.
Yellow Y Based on Keeby, the yellow Kirby controlled by Player 2 in Kirby's Dream Course and various other Kirby titles, as well as Beam Kirby from Kirby Super Star, sans the hat.
Blue B The same as when Kirby is Ice Kirby in Kirby Super Star, sans the hat. Also used for Player 3 in Kirby 64.
Red R The same as when Kirby is Fire Kirby in Kirby Super Star, sans the hat. Also used for Player 3 in recent multiplayer games.
Green G The same as when Kirby is Plasma Kirby in Kirby Super Star, sans the hat. Also used for Player 4 in recent multiplayer games.
White W Based on Kirby's monochrome appearance from the original Kirby's Dream Land. It is also similar to Kirby's appearance on the North American box cover.

Link

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Link's alternate costumes in SSBB

Green G Based off his latest character design from The Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess.
Red R Based on the color change caused by the Red Ring in the original The Legend of Zelda. It is also based off the Goron Tunic that was featured in The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time. It is Link's only color scheme that changes the color of his belt.
Blue B Based off the Zora Tunic from The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time.
Lavender L Based on the Blue Ring from The Legend of Zelda for the NES.
Yellow Y Based on Link's color scheme of when he uses the Great Fairy Tears from The Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess. It is the only color scheme to change the color of his sleeves and pants.
Black B Based off Dark Link, who originated from Zelda II: The Adventure of Link, and appeared again in Ocarina of Time. His design is based on Dark Link's cameo appearance in Twilight Princess, where Lanayru used the character to symbolize the Dark Interlopers in Link's vision. It is the only color scheme to change the color of his skin, hair, and eyes.

Lucario

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Lucario's alternate costumes in SSBB

Blue B Based on its appearance in recent Pokemon titles.
Red R Based off of Mars, one of the commanders of Team Galactic 
Cyan C Changes Lucario's coloration to resemble its pre-evolved form, Riolu.
White W Based off of the suits of Team Galactic
Green G Possibly based off of the hair of Galactic Grunts

Lucas

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Lucas's alternate costumes in SSBB

Yellow Y Based on his appearance from Mother 3.
Orange O Changes his color scheme to that of his twin brother, Claus.
Red R Could be based on the color scheme of Hinawa's dress, depicted as red in Mother 3.
Blue B Resembles Ness's pajamas in EarthBound.
Green G N/A
Purple P N/A

Luigi

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Luigi's alternate costumes in SSBB

Green G Based on his current appearance since Luigi's Mansion and Mario Party 4.
Orange O Based on Mario's color scheme from Pinball, but with an orange hat instead of a blue one.
Pink R Based on what Luigi's color scheme in Wrecking Crew, in which he wore pink. Referred to as "Strawberry Luigi" on the original SSB website.
Blue B Ice Luigi, though his overalls are purple instead of green. Based on Mario's color scheme on the cover for the NES version of Mario Bros.
White W Based on Fire Luigi in recent Mario titles.
Purple P Based on Waluigi, Luigi's arch-rival from the Mario series. Matches Mario's Wario-based swap.

Mario

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Mario's alternate costumes in SSBB

Red R Based on his current appearance since Luigi's Mansion, Super Mario Sunshine and Mario Party 4.
White W Based on Fire Mario's appearance dating back to Super Mario Bros. onward.
Blue B Based on his appearance in Donkey Kong, but wears a blue cap instead of a red one. Also resembles the Balloon Fighter's color scheme from Balloon Fight and Mario's appearance on the Japanese boxart of Famicom version of Mario Bros.
Yellow Y Based on Wario's classic design, as it did in previous games.
Black B Originally based on Foreman Spike from Wrecking Crew '98 according to the original SSB Japanese site, though the costume has updated from the original version of this swap to be more black and white than brown and yellow. It may also resemble his more monochromatic appearance in the Super Mario Land games for the Gameboy.
Green G A color inverse of his traditional colors which resembles his appearance on Japanese and European box arts for Wrecking Crew. The color of his overalls are now more brown than orange, updated from the original game. It also resembles Luigi's appearance on the arcade version of Mario Bros.

Marth

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Marth's alternate costumes in SSBB

Cyan C Based on his appearance from Fire Emblem: Mystery of the Emblem.
Red R Based on the "enemy" unit color in the Fire Emblem series. This is the only palette swap to change Marth's tiara and sheathe color.
Green G Based on the "ally" unit color in the Fire Emblem series.
Black B Based on Quan from Fire Emblem: Genealogy of the Holy War.
White W Based on Leif, the protagonist of Fire Emblem: Thracia 776.
Blue B Closely based off the official artwork for Fire Emblem: Monsho no Nazo (even the hair color changes to match the said artwork)..

Meta Knight

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Meta Knight's alternate costumes in SSBB

All of Meta Knight's costumes are similar to alternate costumes from Kirby Air Ride.

Purple P Based on his appearance from recent Kirby titles
White W Resembles a Paladin, a Holy Knight. Also based on a similar swap in Kirby Air Ride.
Red R Based on a similar swap in Kirby Air Ride. Also resembles his concept artwork from Kirby's Dream Collection.
Green G Based on a similar swap in Kirby Air Ride.
Blue B Although believed by some fans to be inspired by Kirby and the Amazing Mirror's Dark Meta Knight, it actually resembles his official art from his first appearance in Kirby's Adventure, where his mask and shoes were depicted as a dark purple color, his body was close to black, and his cape was red. However, in this appearance, his eyes were not red and his gloves were white, unlike the palette swap.
Pink P Based on a similar swap in Kirby Air Ride. Also changes his color scheme to resemble Kirby.

Mr Game & Watch

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Mr. Game & Watch's alternate costumes in SSBB

Black B Based on the Game & Watch characters from the games Fire and Parachute.
Red R Based on depictions of objects and characters on the Virtual Boy.
Yellow Y Based on depictions of objects and characters on the Gameboy.
Blue B Resemble the blue crab from Crab Grab.
Green G Resembles the crab from Crab Grab.
Cyan C The inverse of his red palette swap. It is reminiscent of the backlit display of the Game Boy Light.

Ness

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Ness's alternate costumes in SSBB

Red R Based on his appearance from EarthBound.
White W Features a white T-shirt with red sleeves, the same as the shirt Fuel wears in Mother 3.
Yellow Y The black and yellow stripes resemble the uniform of the Hanshin Tigers, a Japanese baseball team with a large following. The shirt also bears a very similar color scheme to the Gigantic Ant enemy from EarthBound.
Green G Resemble's that of Everdred from Earthbound. Sometimes referred to as El Chavo Ness.
Blue B Is based on Ness's younger self that he encounters briefly in EarthBound, who was wearing a blue hat.
Purple P Has a Mr. Saturn sprite drawn on the front of his shirt. May be based on the Good Kid's Shirt from Mother 3, which is found only in Saturn Valley.

Olimar

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Olimar's alternate costumes in SSBB

Yellow Y Based on his appearance from Pikmin 2.
White W Makes Olimar look like an astronaut, particularly the Navy Mark IV.
Red R The same color as the red pikmin.
Black B This is the only palette swap to change the colour of Olimar's helmet.
Green G Makes Olimar resemble his son.
Blue B Makes Olimar look like Louie, his partner from Pikmin 2.

Peach

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Peach's alternate costumes in SSBB

Pink P Based on her current design since Super Mario Sunshine and Mario Party 4.
Yellow Y Based on Princess Daisy. Unlike Melee, this is only a re-coloring; her earrings, crown, brooch, and skin remain unchanged. It is the only costume to change the color of Peach's hair to auburn.
Red R Based on Pauline's original appearance in Donkey Kong.
Blue B Based on an alternate color from Mario Golf (N64) and Daisy's appearance on the title screen of NES Open Tournament Golf. It also bears a slight resemblance to Rosalina from Super Mario Galaxy, with the silver crown and blue dress.
Green G Based on an alternate color from Mario Golf (N64) and her appearance on the title screen of NES Open Tournament Golf.
White W Resembles the wedding dress her paper counterpart wore in Super Paper Mario. This costume no longer gives Peach white stockings, unlike in Melee.

Pikachu

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Pikachu's alternate costumes in SSBB

Pikachu is the only character to have only four costume choices in Brawl.

Yellow Y Based on its appearance from recent Pokemon titles.
Red R Includes Red's hat, the protagonist of Pokémon Red and Blue. Pikachu's fur color also changes to look akin to a shiny Pikachu.
Green G Includes Brendan's headband as it appeared in Pokémon Emerald.
Blue B Has the goggles worn by Pichu in Melee, which are possibly a reference to those worn by the "Swimmer" class of trainer in the Pokémon series.

Pit

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Pit's alternate costumes in SSBB

White W Based on an original redesign specifically for Super Smash Bros Brawl
Yellow Y Similar to his outfit in the Captain N comic.
Red R Similar to an outfit in Kid Icarus with the Gold Arrow upgrade.
Green G Similar to an outfit in Kid Icarus with the Bronze Arrow upgrade.
Blue B Similar to an outfit in Kid Icarus with the Sacred Arrow upgrade.
Black B Makes Pit look like a fallen angel, according to the DOJO!! This is also the origin of Dark Pit's design in the 3DS game Kid Icarus: Uprising, hence the heavy resemblance to the character.

Pokémon Trainer

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The Pokémon Trainer's alternate costumes in SSBB

Default D Based on Red from the original Pokémon games.
Red R The trainer's hat resembles that of Leaf, the female trainer in Pokémon FireRed and LeafGreen.
Charizard resembles its pre-evolution, Charmeleon.
Green G The trainer takes on the color scheme of Brendan as he appeared in Pokémon Emerald.
Ivysaur and Squirtle appear with their "shiny" colors.
Blue B Charizard's purple colour is similar to that of its shiny color from Generation II.
Squirtle's blue colour is possibly inspired by the original sprite in Generation I, particularly Pokémon Yellow.
White W Charizard's yellow tint resembles the shiny colors of its pre-evolutions, Charmander and Charmeleon.

R.O.B.

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R.O.B.'s alternate costumes in SSBB

Red R Based on R.O.B.'s Japanese colour scheme for the Famicom. This design also was the source for the R.O.B. Sentry.
White W Based on R.O.B.'s North American color scheme for the NES. Even the words on his base change from "Family Computer Robot" to "R.O.B. - Robotic Operating Buddy", the same as the American design. R.O.B.'s gray costume also appears similar to the R.O.B. Blaster from the The Subspace Emissary
Yellow Y Slightly resembles the color scheme of the glitch, Flipper, from Stack-Up.
Purple P The only color where the cord on the back is a different color. It also has the color scheme of the glitch, Spike, from Stack-Up. Also resembles the North American SNES color scheme.
Blue B Gives R.O.B. colours similar to a R.O.B. seen in StarTropics. Also resembles the original color scheme of the Gameboy Advance and the Nintendo Gamecube.
Green G Similar to the R.O.B. Launcher from the Subspace Emissary, though lacking the same bright blue cord and missile-launching face.

Samus

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Samus's alternate costumes in SSBB

Orange O Based on the Varia Suit from Metroid: Zero Mission.
Blue B Based on the Fusion Suit from Metroid Fusion.
Pink R Similar to the appearance of the Varia Suit when missiles are selected in the original NES Metroid game.
Black B Based on the Dark Suit from Metroid Prime 2: Echoes.
Purple P Based on the Gravity Suit as it first appeared in Super Metroid and most games in the series since.
Green G In Japan, the original Smash 64 website referred to this alternate costume as "mass-produced Samus", a reference to Gundam.

Snake

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Solid Snake's alternate costumes in SSBB

Most of these are based on different camouflage suits worn by Naked Snake (a.k.a. Big Boss) in Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater.

Grey G Based on Snake's default standard camouflage suit from Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty.
Red R Based off The Fury's Fire camouflage.
Blue B Based off The Splitter camouflage.
White W Based off the Snow camouflage.
Green G Based off the Tiger Stripe camouflage.
Brown B Based off Major Ocelot's Animal camouflage.

Sonic

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Sonic's alternate costumes in SSBB

Sonic is the only non-Pokémon character to have fewer than six palette swaps. The stripe on his sneakers is white in all palette swaps, and, in all but the default palette swap, the rest of his sneakers match his wristbands.

Blue B Based on his appearance from recent Sonic titles.
Black B Resembles Dark Sonic from the Sonic X anime.
Yellow Y Gives Sonic an indigo color and golden bracelets that resemble the ones worn by Silver the Hedgehog.
Green G His wristbands resemble the ones attached to the gloves that appear in the special stages in Knuckles the Echidna in Sonic the Hedgehog 2.
Red R His wristbands resemble the ones attached to the gloves that appear in the special stages in Sonic the Hedgehog 2.

Toon Link

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Toon Link's alternate costumes in SSBB

Green G Based on his appearance from The Legend of Zelda: Wind Waker.
Red R Based on the red Link copy from the Four Swords saga.
Blue B Based on the blue Link copy from the Four Swords saga.
Purple P Based on the purple Link copy from the Four Swords saga.
Brown B Based on the color scheme of Link in the original The Legend of Zelda. The brown hair and sleeves with the more traditional green tunic resembles some of the older iterations of Link in games such as The Legend of Zelda and Zelda II: The Adventure of Link. It also makes him look like his appearance from the Legend of Zelda cartoon.
Black B Based on a toon version of Dark Link, who appears closer to this color scheme in Four Swords Adventures, but does not resemble.

Wario

Unlike all other characters, Wario has two outfits each with multiple color choices: his biker costume from the WarioWare games, which is his default costume, and his classic overalls from the Mario series and the Wario Land series, effectively doubling his alternate costume choices.

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Wario's biker costumes in SSBB

Cyan C Based on his outfit from the WarioWare series.
Red R The red jacket and white pants and goggles match the color scheme of Jimmy T . The white/red color scheme may also reference Mona's, as well as Fire Mario's.
Yellow Y The yellow jacket/purple shirt combo resembles the color scheme of his overalls. The yellow jacket/blue pants combo also bears some similarities to Mona's outfit in Warioware Twisted!.
Green G Resembles Zombie Wario from Wario Land 3.
Black B His red costume, but the colors are essentially reversed. It could be based on the Shake Kingfrom Wario Land: Shake It! which would be released a couple months later, or a simple nod to greasers, a subculture surrounding Hot Rods and Motorcycles.
Blue B Resembles the colors of an actual biker, with the denim jeans and jacket combo and the white undershirt.
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Wario's overall costumes in SSBB

Wario's overalls closely resemble the cartoonish look in both the Mario and Wario games, in contrast to Mario, Luigi, and Waluigi, who were given more realistic-looking overalls.

Yellow Y Based on his classic outfit from the Mario series and the Wario Land series as well as his current appearance since Wario Land 2.
Red R Resembles Mario's original color scheme from his debut in Donkey Kong and his outfit in the three DIC Entertainment cartoons. This somewhat mirrors the way that Wario's "classic" outfit appears as one of Mario's alternate costumes. It is also one of Wario's alternate costumes from Mario Golf.
Blue B Resembles Mario's appearance on the Japanese cover of the Game Boy Advance port of Mario Bros and the European cover of the NES version of Mario Bros.
Green G Similar to Mario's green costume, it resembles Mario's appearance on the Japanese boxart for Wrecking Crew and Luigi's appearance on the arcade version of Mario Bros.
Brown B Resembles Foreman Spike, Mario's rival in Wrecking Crew.
White W Resembles his in-game sprite in Wario Land 2 and Wario Land 3, where his outfit is a tad more monochromatic. It also resembles one of Wario's alternate costumes from Mario Golf.

Wolf

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Wolf's alternate costumes in SSBB

Grey G Resembles his default attire in Star Fox: Assault.
Red R May be based on the color scheme of the Wolfens, the ships used by Star Wolf.
Black B Gives Wolf a dark alternate costume which compliments Fox's and Falco's. The portrait shows him having black sleeves, but are actually white in-game.
Green G Looks similar to Player 4 clothes from Star Fox: Assault's multiplayer.
Blue B Looks similar to Player 2 clothes from Star Fox: Assault's multiplayer.
White W Resembles the colors of the original Wolfens from Star Fox 64. The portrait shows him having black sleeves, but are actually white in-game.

Yoshi

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Yoshi's alternate costumes in SSBB

All of Yoshi's costumes are different variations of the Yoshi species in many of his games, specifically Super Mario World 2: Yoshi's Island, Yoshi's Story, Super Mario Advance 3, and Yoshi's Island DS. The soles of his shoes, the saddle on his back, and his scales stay the same color, no matter what color he is.

Green G A standard green Yoshi as well as his current appearance since Super Mario Sunshine and Mario Party 4.
Red R A red Yoshi.
Blue B A blue Yoshi.
Yellow Y A yellow Yoshi.
Pink P A pink Yoshi.
Cyan C A light blue Yoshi.

Zelda/Sheik

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Zelda's and Sheik's alternate costumes in SSBB

Purple/
Light Blue
P Based on her character model from The Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess. Masahiro Sakurai stated that Sheik's appearance reflects how she would have looked like if she appeared in that game, based on designs drafted up during that game's development.
Red R Based off Zelda's early appearances in The Legend of Zelda and Zelda II: Adventure of Link. This is also the only one of her color schemes in which she doesn't wear gloves.
Blue B Official art for A Link to the Past shows Zelda with a blue dress, while Sheik seems based on Tetra with the blue costume and red scarf.
Pink P Based off Zelda and Sheik's appearances in Ocarina of Time and Melee respectively.
Green G If the original Zelda is beaten without a ring, Zelda's dress will be green. Sheik's palette swap is reminiscent of Saria from The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time.
Black B Closely resembles Zelda's robed appearance in the beginning of The Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess. Sheik's palette swap resembles the traditional appearance of ninjas.

Zero Suit Samus

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Zero Suit Samus' alternate costumes in SSBB

Cyan C Based on the Zero Suit in Metroid: Zero Mission.
Blue B Based on her outfit she wears upon completion of Metroid Prime 2: Echoes.
Pink R Resembles her first appearance in the original Metroid after clearing it 100% or by entering JUSTIN BAILEY into the password screen.
Black B Similar to the outfit she wore in a Japanese Super Metroid commercial. Also resembles the color scheme of her ending outfit in the same game.
Purple P N/A
Green G May be a reference to her suitless appearance in the Captain N comic. Sakurai refers this outfit as a "mass-produced Zero Suit," similar to how Samus's green costume is referred to a "mass-produced Samus", a reference to Gundam.

N/A: Color that is original to Super Smash Bros. and doesn't have any particular reference.

Stats

  • There is a total of 216 alternate costumes. 222 if you count Sheik as a separate character.
  • The average number of costumes per character is 6.
  • Wario has the highest amount of color palette swaps: 12.
    • Wario is the first character in the Super Smash Bros. series to have an alternate costume along with color palette swaps.
  • There is only 1 fighter with only 4 color palette swaps, and there are 4 fighters with only 5.

Same color glitch

In Super Smash Bros. Brawl, there is a glitch in which players can use the same character with the same color scheme for VS. Mode (other than Team Battles) and Solo Mode (which uses a more difficult method involving choosing a random character).

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